Notes on the balance sheet
1. Gold and gold receivables
The Bank’s holdings of gold total 1,576,487 troy ounces (1 troy ounce = 31.103 g). In the annual accounts, gold has been valued at market price. At the beginning of 1999 the Bank of Finland – and the other national central banks (NCBs) participating in the Eurosystem – transferred about 20% of its gold holdings to the ECB.
|Gold||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|Holdings (troy ounces, million)||1.6||1.6|
|Price: EUR per troy ounce||1,706.1||1,609.5|
|Market price (EUR m)||2,689.6||2,537.3|
|Change in market value (EUR m)||152.3||103.4|
2. Claims on non-euro area residents denominated in foreign currency
The item consists of claims on non-euro area residents denominated in foreign currency and included in the Bank of Finland’s foreign reserves, and receivables from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
2.1 Receivables from the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
|Breakdown of receivables from the IMF||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|EUR m||SDR m||EUR m||SDR m|
|Reserve tranche in the IMF||828.9||662.2||741.2||599.7|
|Special drawing rights||4,464.3||3,566.6||4,234.5||3,426.2|
|Other receivables from the IMF||20.9||16.7||40.3||32.6|
|EUR/SDR exchange rate in financial years 2021 and 2022||2022||2021|
Finland’s quota in the IMF is SDR 2,410.6 million. The reserve tranche is the part of the Bank’s quota that has been paid to the IMF in foreign currency. Another part of the quota was formerly paid to the IMF in Finnish markka. The IMF has lent this part back to the Bank of Finland. The net effect of the Finnish markka quota on the Bank’s balance sheet is zero, since the above-mentioned receivables and the liability are included in the same balance sheet item.
The Bank of Finland’s holdings of special drawing rights (SDRs) are equivalent to EUR 4,464.3 million. Special drawing rights are reserve assets created and allocated by the IMF to its member countries. They are used in currency transactions as normal currency units. The amount of the sub-item changes on the basis of foreign exchange transactions between the member countries. It is also affected by interests earned and paid as well as remuneration on the Bank’s claims in the IMF.
In total, the Bank of Finland’s receivables from the IMF amount to EUR 5,314.2 million.
2.2 Balances with banks and security investments, external loans and other external assets
This item consists of foreign currency-denominated deposits and security investments as well as external loans and other external assets.
|Breakdown of claims on non-euro area residents denominated in foreign currency||31 Dec 2022EUR m||31 Dec 2021 EUR m||Change EUR m|
|Currency breakdown of securities of non-euro area residents denominated in foreign currency|
|31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|Currency||EUR m||%||EUR m||%|
|Remaining maturity of securities of non-euro area residents denominated in foreign currency|
|31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|Maturity||EUR m||%||EUR m||%|
|Up to 1 year||1,169.9||27.3||1,638.0||36.8|
|Over 1 year||3,121.0||72.7||2,811.0||63.2|
3. Claims on euro area residents denominated in foreign currency
This item consists of foreign currency-denominated deposits and securities as well as other claims on euro area residents denominated in foreign currency.
|Breakdown of claims on euro area residents denominated in foreign currency||31 Dec 2022EUR m||31 Dec 2021 EUR m||Change EUR m|
|Currency breakdown of securities of euro area residents denominated in foreign currency|
|31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|Currency||EUR m||%||EUR m||%|
|Remaining maturity of securities of euro area residents denominated in foreign currency|
|31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|Maturity||EUR m||%||EUR m||%|
|Up to 1 year||59.4||54.4||148.0||55.0|
|Over 1 year||49.7||45.6||121.3||45.0|
4. Claims on non-euro area residents denominated in euro
As at 31 December 2022, the Bank of Finland had no claims on non-euro area residents denominated in euro.
5. Lending to euro area credit institutions related to monetary policy operations denominated in euro
This item consists of monetary policy instruments used by the Bank of Finland to implement monetary policy as part of the Eurosystem. The item consists of interest-bearing credit to Finnish credit institutions, and the amount recorded is determined by the credit institutions’ liquidity needs.
The total Eurosystem holding of monetary policy assets amounts to EUR 1,324.3 billion, of which the Bank of Finland holds EUR 30,096.4 million. In accordance with Article 32.4 of the ESCB Statute, losses from monetary policy operations, if they were to materialise, are shared in full by the Eurosystem NCBs, in proportion to the prevailing ECB capital key shares. Losses can only materialise if both the counterparty fails and the recovery of funds received from the resolution of the collateral provided by the counterparty is not sufficient. For specific collateral which can be accepted by NCBs at their own discretion, risk sharing has been excluded by the Governing Council of the ECB.
|Lending to euro area credit institutions related to monetary policy operations denominated in euro||31 Dec 2022EUR m||31 Dec 2021EUR m||Change EUR m|
|Main refinancing operations||–||–||–|
|Longer-term refinancing operations||30,096.4||36,113.4||-6,017.0|
|Fine-tuning reverse operations||–||–||–|
|Structural reverse opeerations||–||–||–|
|Marginal lending facility||–||–||–|
|Credits related to margin calls||–||–||–|
5.1 Main refinancing operations
Main refinancing operations (MROs) are liquidity providing reverse transactions which are executed with a weekly frequency and a maturity of one week, on the basis of standard tenders. They are conducted as fixed rate tender procedures. These operations play a key role in achieving the aims of steering interest rates, managing market liquidity and signalling the monetary policy stance.
5.2 Longer-term refinancing operations
These operations (LTROs) aim to provide counterparties with additional longer-term refinancing. These operations were conducted at fixed rate with allotment of the total amount bid. In addition to the series of seven quarterly targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTRO III) introduced in 2019, the Governing Council added three further operations to this series in December 2020, which were conducted between June and December 2021. These operations have a three-year maturity. For the first seven TLTROs III, from September 2021, starting 12 months after the settlement of each TLTRO III, participants have had the option on a quarterly basis of terminating or reducing the amount of TLTRO III concerned before maturity. For the eighth or subsequent TLTROs III, participants have had that option on a quarterly basis starting in June 2022. According to the initial decisions taken by the Governing Council, the final interest rate applicable to each TLTRO III operation could be as low as the average interest rate on the deposit facility prevailing over the life of the operation. Furthermore, in response to the COVID-19 shock, in 2020Decisions of the Governing Council of 30 April 2020 and 10 December 2020. the Governing Council decided that for the period between 24 June 2020 and 23 June 2021 and the period between 24 June 2021 and 23 June 2022 – referred to as the special interest rate period and the additional special interest rate period respectively – the interest rate applicable can be as low as 50 basis points below the average interest rate on the deposit facility prevailing over the same period, but in any case may not become less negative than -1%.
Additionally, on 27 October 2022 the Governing Council decided that, from 23 November 2022 until the maturity date or early repayment date of each respective outstanding TLTRO III operation, the interest rate on TLTRO III operations will be indexed to the average applicable key ECB interest rates over this period. On the same date, the Governing Council decided that three additional voluntary early repayment dates are introduced to provide TLTRO III participants with additional opportunities to partly, or fully, repay their respective TLTRO III borrowings before their maturity.
The actual interest rates can only be known at the maturity or early repayment of each operation and before that a reliable estimate is only possible as far as the interest rate related data regarding the special interest rate period and the additional special interest rate period have already been communicated to the counterparties. This means that for the annual accounts 2022, the following approach was applied for calculating the TLTRO III interest accruals: (i) until 23 June 2022, the interest rates over the additional special interest rate period, for which the interest rate related data was communicated to the counterparties on 10 June 2022, (ii) for the period from 24 June 2022 until 22 November 2022, the interest rate was linked to the average applicable key ECB interest rate from the settlement date till 22 November 2022, and (iii) for the period 23 November 2022 until 31 December 2022, the interest rate was indexed to the average applicable key ECB interest rate over this period. Furthermore, the impact of policy rate changes in 2022 on interest of the pre-special interest rate period is also considered in 2022.
Furthermore, of the four additional pandemic emergency longer-term refinancing operations (PELTROs) allotted in 2021 on a quarterly basis, each with a tenor of approximately one year, three matured in the course of 2022. These operations provided a liquidity backstop to the euro area banking system and contribute to preserving the smooth functioning of the money market during the extended pandemic period. The PELTROs were conducted as fixed rate tender procedures with full allotment. The interest rate is 25 basis points below the average rate applied in the Eurosystem’s main refinancing operations over the life of the respective PELTRO.
5.3 Fine-tuning reverse operations
Fine-tuning reverse operations aim to regulate the market liquidity situation and steer interest rates, particularly to smooth the effects on interest rates caused by unexpected market fluctuations. Owing to their nature, they are executed on an ad-hoc basis.
5.4 Structural reverse operations
These are reverse open-market transactions through standard tenders to enable the Eurosystem to adjust its structural liquidity position vis-à-vis the financial sector.
5.5 Marginal lending facility
Marginal lending facilities may be used by counterparties to obtain overnight liquidity from NCBs at a pre-specified interest rate against eligible assets.
5.6 Credits related to margin calls
This item refers to cash paid to counterparties in those instances where the market value of the collateral exceeds an established trigger point implying an excess of collateral with respect to outstanding monetary policy operations.
6. Other claims on euro area credit institutions denominated in euro
This item consists of euro-denominated deposits and accounts with euro area credit institutions.
|Other claims on euro area credit institutions denominated in euro||31 Dec 2022EUR m||31 Dec 2021 EUR m||Change EUR m|
|Reverse repurchase agreements||–||–||–|
|Emergency Liquidity Assistance (ELA)||–||–||–|
On 17 May 2017, the Governing Council decided to publish the text of the Emergency Liquidity Assistance (ELA) agreement with the aim of further increasing transparency regarding ELA. This publication replaces the ELA procedures document that has been available on the ECB website since October 2013. For the text of the press release, click on: For the text of the press release, click on: http://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2017/html/ecb.pr170619.en.html.
7. Securities of euro area residents denominated in euro
7.1 Securities held for monetary policy purposes
As at 31 December 2022 this item consisted of securities acquired by the Bank of Finland within the scope of the Securities Markets Programme (SMP), the third covered bond purchase programme (CBPP3), the public sector purchase programme (PSPP), the corporate sector purchase programme (CSPP) and the pandemic emergency purchase programme (PEPP). All securities held under the first and the second covered bond purchase programmes (CBPP1 and CBPP2) matured in the course of 2022, and therefore the ECB and the euro area NCBs do not have holdings of these securities as at 31 December 2022.
|Start date||End date||Decision||Universe of eligible securities1|
|Completed / Terminated programmes|
|CBPP1||July 2009||June 2010||ECB/2009/16||Covered bonds of euro area residents|
|CBPP2||November 2011||October 2012||ECB/2011/17||Covered bonds of euro area residents|
|SMP||May 2010||September 2012||ECB/2010/5||Public and private debt securities issued in the euro area2|
|Asset purchase programme (APP)|
|CBPP3||October 2014||active||ECB/2020/8,as amended||Covered bonds of euro area residents|
|ABSPP||November 2014||active||ECB/2014/45,as amended||Senior and guaranteed mezzanine tranches of asset-backed securities of euro area residents|
|PSPP||March 2015||active||ECB/2020/9||Bonds issued by euro-area central, regional or local governments or recognised agencies as well as by international organisations and multilateral development banks located in the euro area|
|CSPP||June 2016||active||ECB/2016/16,as amended||Bonds and commercial papers issued by non-bank corporations established in the euro area|
|Pandemic emergency purchase programme (PEPP)|
|PEPP||March 2020||active||ECB/2020/17, as amended||All asset categories eligible under the APP3|
|1) Further eligibility criteria for the specific programmes can be found in the Governing Council's decisions.|
|2) Only public debt securities issued by five euro area treasuries were purchased under the SMP.|
|3) A waiver of the eligibility requirements was granted for securities issued by the Greek Government.|
During the first quarter of 2022 the Eurosystem continued its net purchases under the asset purchase programme (APP)Further details on the APP can be found on the ECB’s website. at a monthly pace of EUR 20 billion on average. In March 2022 the Governing Council decidedSee the press release of 10 March 2022 of the Governing Council’s decision. to revise the net purchase amounts to EUR 40 billion in April, EUR 30 billion in May and EUR 20 billion in June, while in June 2022 the Governing Council decidedSee the press release of 9 June 2022 of the Governing Council’s decisions. to end net asset purchases under the APP as of 1 July 2022. The Governing Council intends to continue reinvesting, in full, the principal payments from maturing securities until the end of February 2023. Subsequently, the APP portfolio will decline at a measured and predictable pace, as the Eurosystem will not reinvest all of the principal payments from maturing securities. The decline will amount to EUR 15 billion per month on average until the end of the second quarter of 2023 and its subsequent pace will be determined over time. The Governing Council will regularly reassess the pace of the APP portfolio reduction to ensure it remains consistent with the overall monetary policy strategy and stance, to preserve market functioning, and to maintain firm control over short-term money market conditions.
In addition, during the first quarter of 2022 the Eurosystem continued its net asset purchases under the PEPPFurther details on the PEPP can be found on the ECB’s website., though at a lower pace than in the previous quarter, following the decision of the Governing Council in December 2021See the press release of 16 December 2021 of the Governing Council’s decisions. Based on the same decision, the net PEPP purchases were discontinued at the end of March 2022. The Governing Council intends to reinvest the principal payments from maturing securities purchased under the PEPP until at least the end of 2024. The Governing Council will continue applying flexibility in the reinvestments, with a view to countering risks to the monetary policy transmission mechanism related to the pandemic.
The securities purchased under all of these programmes are valued on an amortised cost basis subject to impairment (see ‘Valuation and amortisation of securities’ under ‘Accounting policies’). The amortised cost of the securities held by the Bank of Finland, and their market valueMarket values are indicative and are derived on the basis of market quotes. When market quotes are not available, market prices are estimated using internal Eurosystem models. (which is not recorded on the balance sheet or in the profit and loss account and is provided for comparison purposes only), are as follows:
|Securities held for monetary policy purposes (EUR m)|
|31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021||Change|
|Balance sheet value||Market value||Balance sheet value||Market value||Balance sheet value||Market value|
|PSPP - government/agency securities||37,294.6||31,605.3||34,554.3||35,451.4||2,740.4||-3,846.1|
|PSPP - supranational securities||2,140.5||1,913.1||2,426.5||2,574.0||-286.0||-660.9|
|PEPP - covered bonds||218.1||187.0||233.3||231.5||-15.3||-44.5|
|PEPP - government/agency securities||22,933.0||19,219.8||23,200.9||22,974.3||-267.9||-3,754.4|
|PEPP - corporate sector securities||4,894.9||4,017.2||4,636.3||4,676.1||258.6||-658.8|
The Governing Council assesses on a regular basis the financial risks associated with the securities held under these programmes. In this context, impairment tests are conducted on an annual basis, using data as at the year-end and are approved by the Governing Council. In these tests, impairment indicators are assessed separately for each programme. In cases where impairment indicators are observed, further analysis is performed to confirm that the cash flows of the underlying securities have not been affected by an impairment event.
In accordance with Article 32.4 of the ESCB Statute, losses from holdings of securities purchased under the SMP, CBPP3 and CSPP programmes, from holdings of securities of supranational organisations purchased under the PSPP and from holdings of covered bonds and corporate sector securities purchased under the PEPP, if they were to materialise, are shared in full by the Eurosystem NCBs, in proportion to their prevailing ECB capital key shares.
As a result of impairment tests conducted as at 31 December 2022 on securities purchased under the aforementioned programmes, the Governing Council decided that all future cash flows on these securities are expected to be received. The following table shows, for each programme, total holdings of Eurosystem NCBs and the Bank of Finland’s share held on the balance sheet.
|Securities held for monetary policy purposes (EUR m)||Held by Eurosystem NCBs||On the Bank of Finland's balance sheet|
|31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|PSPP - supranational securities||275,228.1||264,537.0||2,140.5||2,426.5|
|PEPP - covered bonds||5,282.8||5,377.1||218.1||233.3|
|PEPP - supranational securities||145,687.1||130,590.5||–||–|
|PEPP - corporate sector securities||46,073.9||43,781.6||4,894.9||4,636.3|
7.2 Other securities
This item consists of holdings of fund shares issued by euro area residents.
|Breakdown of other securities of euro area residents denominated in euro (EUR m)||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021||Change|
8. Intra-Eurosystem claims
8.1 Participating interest in ECB
Pursuant to Article 28 of the ESCB Statute, the ESCB national central banks are the sole subscribers to the capital of the ECB. Subscriptions depend on shares which are fixed in accordance with Article 29 of the ESCB Statute and are subject to adjustment every five years or whenever there is a change in composition of the ESCB national central banks.
For the Bank of Finland this balance sheet item includes (i) the paid-up share in the ECB’s subscribed capital, (ii) the net amount paid by the Bank of Finland due to the increase in its share in the ECB’s equity value resulting from all previous ECB capital key adjustments, and (iii) contributions in accordance with Article 48.2 of the Statute of the ESCB.
|NCBs' paid-up share in the ECB's capital|
|Capital keysince 1 Feb 2020, %||Subscribed capital EUR millions||Paid-up capitalas at31 Dec 2020EUR millions||Paid-up capitalas at31 Dec 2021EUR millions||Paid-up capitalas at31 Dec 2022EUR millions|
|Nationale Bank van België/Banque Nationale de Belgique (Belgium)||2.9630||320.7||276.3||298.5||320.7|
|Deutsche Bundesbank (Germany)||21.4394||2,320.8||1,999.2||2,160.0||2,320.8|
|Eesti Pank (Estonia)||0.2291||24.8||21.4||23.1||24.8|
|Central Bank of Ireland (Ireland)||1.3772||149.1||128.4||138.8||149.1|
|Bank of Greece (Greece)||2.0117||217.8||187.6||202.7||217.8|
|Banco de España (Spain)||9.6981||1,049.8||904.3||977.1||1,049.8|
|Banque de France (France)||16.6108||1,798.1||1,548.9||1,673.5||1,798.1|
|Banca d'Italia (Italy)||13.8165||1,495.6||1,288.3||1,392.0||1,495.6|
|Central Bank of Cyprus (Cyprus)||0.1750||18.9||16.3||17.6||18.9|
|Latvijas Banka (Latvia)||0.3169||34.3||29.5||31.9||34.3|
|Lietuvos bankas (Lithuania)||0.4707||51.0||43.9||47.4||51.0|
|Banque centrale du Luxembourg (Luxembourg)||0.2679||29.0||25.0||27.0||29.0|
|Central Bank of Malta (Malta)||0.0853||9.2||8.0||8.6||9.2|
|De Nederlandsche Bank (The Netherlands)||4.7662||515.9||444.4||480.2||515.9|
|Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austria)||2.3804||257.7||222.0||239.8||257.7|
|Banco de Portugal (Portugal)||1.9035||206.1||177.5||191.8||206.1|
|Banka Slovenije (Slovenia)||0.3916||42.4||36.5||39.5||42.4|
|Národná banka Slovenska (Slovakia)||0.9314||100.8||86.9||93.8||100.8|
|Suomen Pankki – Finlands Bank (Finland)||1.4939||161.7||139.3||150.5||161.7|
|Subtotal for euro area NCBs||81.3286||8,803.8||7,583.6||8,193.7||8,803.8|
|Bulgarian National Bank (Bulgaria)||0.9832||106.4||4.0||4.0||4.0|
|Česká národní banka (Czech Republic)||1.8794||203.4||7.6||7.6||7.6|
|Danmarks Nationalbank (Denmark)||1.7591||190.4||7.1||7.1||7.1|
|Hrvatska narodna banka (Croatia)||0.6595||71.4||2.7||2.7||2.7|
|Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Hungary)||1.5488||167.7||6.3||6.3||6.3|
|Narodowy Bank Polski (Poland)||6.0335||653.1||24.5||24.5||24.5|
|Banca Naţională a României (Romania)||2.8289||306.2||11.5||11.5||11.5|
|Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden)||2.9790||322.5||12.1||12.1||12.1|
|Subtotal for non-euro area NCBs||18.6714||2,021.2||75.8||75.8||75.8|
Capital of the ECB
The subscribed capital of the ECB is EUR 10,825 million. After the Bank of England’s withdrawal from the ESCB on 31 January 2020, the ECB kept its subscribed capital unchanged and the share of the Bank of England in the ECB’s subscribed capital was reallocated among both the euro area NCBs and the remaining non-euro area NCBs.
The ECB’s paid-up capital also remained unchanged at EUR 7,659 million in 2020, as the remaining NCBs covered the withdrawn Bank of England’s paid-up capital of EUR 58 million. In addition, the Governing Council decided that the euro area NCBs would pay up in full their increased subscriptions in two annual instalments in 2021 and 2022.In particular, Decision (EU) 2020/138 of the ECB of 22 January 2020 on the paying-up of the European Central Bank’s capital by the national central banks of Member States whose currency is the euro and repealing Decision (EU) 2019/44 (ECB/2020/4), Decision (EU) 2020/136 of the ECB of 22 January 2020 on the paying-up of the European Central Bank’s capital by the non-euro area national central banks and repealing Decision (EU) 2019/48 (ECB/2020/2) and Decision (EU) 2020/139 of the ECB of 22 January 2020 laying down the terms and conditions for transfers of the European Central Bank’s capital shares between the national central banks and for the adjustment of the paid-up capital and repealing Decision (EU) 2019/45 (ECB/2020/5). The Bank of Finland paid up the first instalment of EUR 11.2 million on 29 December 2021, increasing its share in the paid-up capital of the ECB from EUR 139.3 million in 2020 to EUR 150.5 million in 2021. The second instalment of EUR 11.2 million was paid up on 28 December 2022, increasing the Bank of Finland’s share in the paid-up capital of the ECB to EUR 161.7 million in 2022.
The balance sheet item also includes net adjustments totalling EUR 26.0 million recorded in different years on account of changes to the ECB capital key.
8.2 Claims equivalent to the transfer of foreign reserves
These represent the Bank of Finland’s claims arising from the transfer of foreign reserve assets to the ECB when the Bank joined the Eurosystem. Pursuant to Article 30.2 of the Statute of the ESCB, the contribution of each NCB is fixed in proportion to its share in the subscribed capital of the ECB, meaning the size of the item changes whenever the ECB capital key is adjusted. The remuneration of these claims is calculated daily at the latest available marginal interest rate used by the Eurosystem in its tenders for main refinancing operations, adjusted to reflect a zero return on the gold component.
As at 31 December 2022, the Bank of Finland’s claims equivalent to the transfer of foreign reserves totalled EUR 741.1 million.
8.3 Net claims related to the allocation of euro banknotes within the Eurosystem
This item consists of the claim arising from the adjustment of the banknotes of the Bank of Finland to correspond to the ECB capital key as well as the liability related to the share of 8% of the banknotes in circulation allocated to the ECB. For both the claim and the liability, the counter entry is recorded under the balance sheet liability item ʻBanknotes in circulation’.According to the accounting regime chosen by the Eurosystem on the issue of euro banknotes, a share of 8% of the total value of the euro banknotes in circulation is allocated to the ECB on a monthly basis. The remaining 92% of the value of the euro banknotes in circulation are allocated to the NCBs also on a monthly basis, whereby each NCB shows in its balance sheet a share of the euro banknotes issued corresponding to its paid-up share in the ECB’s capital. The difference between the value of the euro banknotes allocated to the NCB according to the aforementioned accounting regime, and the value of euro banknotes put into circulation, is recorded as a ‘Net Intra-Eurosystem claim/liability related to the allocation of euro banknotes within the Eurosystem’.
At the end of 2022 the balance sheet item totalled EUR 8,009.9 million (EUR 8,263.0 million in 2021). The change in comparison to 2021 was due to the increase of 4.0% in banknotes put into circulation by the Bank of Finland in 2022 as well as the rise of 1.8% in banknotes in circulation in the Eurosystem as a whole. The remuneration of these claims is calculated daily at the latest available marginal interest rate used by the Eurosystem in its tenders for main refinancing operations.
8.4 Other claims within the Eurosystem (net) or liability item Other liabilities within the Eurosystem (net)
|Other claims/liabilities within the Eurosystem (net)||31 Dec 2022EUR m||31 Dec 2021 EUR m||Change EUR m|
|Due to/from ECB in respect of TARGET2 (including balances held with Eurosystem banks through correspondent accounts)||39,252.0||25,282.4||13,969.6|
|Due to/from ECB in respect of monetary income||-422.1||-483.1||61.1|
|Due from ECB in respect of the ECB's interim profit distribution||–||2.8||-2.8|
|Other claims/liabilities within the Eurosystem (net)||38,829.9||24,802.0||14,027.9|
The balance of EUR 38,829.9 million as at 31 December 2022 represents the sum of three components: (1) the position of the Bank of Finland vis-à-vis the ECB in respect of the transfers issued and received through TARGET2 by the ESCB national central banks, including the ECB, plus the balances held with Eurosystem central banks through correspondent accounts; (2) the position vis-à-vis the ECB in respect of the pooling and allocation of monetary income within the Eurosystem pending settlement; and (3) the Bank of Finland’s position vis-à-vis the ECB in respect of any amounts receivable or refundable, including the amount due to the Bank of Finland from the ECB in respect of the ECB’s interim profit distribution.
The year-end net transfers via TARGET2 had a credit balance of EUR 39,252.0 million. The remuneration of this position is calculated daily at the latest available marginal interest rate used by the Eurosystem in its tenders for main refinancing operations.
The position vis-à-vis the ECB in respect of the annual pooling and allocation of monetary income within the Eurosystem national central banks had a debit balance of EUR -422.1 million at year-end (see ‘Net result of pooling of monetary income’ in the notes on the profit and loss account).
In 2021 this item also included the amount due to the Bank of Finland in respect of the ECB’s interim profit distribution. With respect to 2022, the Governing Council, in view of the ECB’s overall financial result for the year, decided to retain the full amount of income derived from banknotes in circulation, as well as income earned on securities purchased under the SMP, APP and PEPP (see ‘Interim profit distribution by the ECB’ under ‘Accounting policies’). Therefore no related amounts were due at the end of 2022.
9. Other assets
This item consists of the Bank of Finland’s holdings of euro coins, fixed assets and investment assets (shares and other equity). The item also includes valuation results of off-balance sheet items, accruals and other receivables as well as the pension fund’s assets.
|Tangible fixed assets|
|Book value||31 Dec 2022EUR m||31 Dec 2021 EUR m||Change EUR m|
|Machinery and equipment||10.4||10.8||-0.4|
|Art and numismatic collection||0.6||0.6||0.0|
|Intangible fixed assets|
|Book value||31 Dec 2022EUR m||31 Dec 2021 EUR m||Change EUR m|
|Other holdings and sundry assets (EUR m)||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021||Change|
|Coins of euro area||40.6||37.6||3.0|
|Shares and other equity||22.6||22.6||–|
|Pension fund's real estate and accruals||10.2||11.3||-1.1|
|Items relating to valuation of off-balance sheet items||-50.1||2.6||-52.7|
1. Banknotes in circulation
This item consists of the Bank of Finland’s share, in accordance with the ECB capital key and adjusted for the share allocated to the ECB, of the total amount of euro banknotes in circulation.
During 2022, the total value of euro banknotes in circulation increased by 1.8%. According to the allocation key, the Bank of Finland had euro banknotes in circulation worth EUR 26,567.4 million at the end of the year, compared with EUR 26,100.1 million at the end of 2021. The value of the euro banknotes actually issued by the Bank of Finland in 2022 increased by 4.0% from EUR 17,837.1 million to EUR 18,557.4 million. As this was less than the allocated amount, the difference of EUR 8,009.9 million (compared to EUR 8,263.0 million in 2021) is shown under asset sub-item ‘Net claims related to the allocation of euro banknotes within the Eurosystem’.
|Banknotes in circulation (EUR m)||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|ECB issue figure||-2,310.1||-2,269.5|
|Banknotes in circulation in accordance with the ECB capital key||26,567.4||26,100.1|
2. Liabilities to euro area credit institutions related to monetary policy operations denominated in euro
|Liabilities to euro area credit institutions related to monetary policy operations denominated in euro||31 Dec 2022EUR m||31 Dec 2021EUR m||Change EUR m|
|Current accounts (covering the minimum reserve system)||4,684.5||101,053.9||-96,369.4|
|Fine-tuning reverse operations||–||–||–|
|Deposits related to margin calls||–||–||–|
2.1 Current accounts (covering the minimum reserve system)
Current accounts contain the credit balances of the transaction accounts of credit institutions that are required to hold minimum reserves, excluding funds of credit institutions that are not freely disposable and accounts of credit institutions exempt from minimum reserve requirements, which are disclosed separately under liability item 3 ‘Other liabilities to euro area credit institutions denominated in euro’. Banks’ minimum reserve balances until 20 December 2022 were remunerated at the latest available marginal interest rate used by the Eurosystem in its tenders for main refinancing operations. On 27 October 2022 the Governing Council decided that, starting from 21 December 2022, these balances will be remunerated at the Eurosystem’s deposit facility rate. Since June 2014, the reserve holdings exceeding the required minimum reserves are remunerated at zero per cent or the deposit facility rate, whichever is lower.
Starting on 30 October 2019, the Governing Council introduced a two-tier system for reserve remuneration, which exempted part of credit institutions’ excess liquidity holdings (i.e. reserve holdings in excess of minimum reserve requirements) from negative remuneration at the rate applicable on the deposit facility. This part was remunerated at the annual rate of 0%. The volume of reserve holdings in excess of minimum reserve requirements that was exempt at year-end from the deposit facility rate – the exempt tier – was determined as a multiple of 6 on an institution’s minimum reserve requirementsThe multiplier may be adjusted by the Governing Council over time in line with changing levels of excess liquidity holdings.. The non-exempt tier of excess liquidity holdings continued to be remunerated at the lower of either zero percent or the deposit facility rate. Following the raising of the deposit facility rate to above zero as of 14 September 2022, the Governing Council decided to suspend the two-tier system by setting the multiplier to zero as the two-tier system for the remuneration of excess reserves was no longer necessary.
2.2 Deposit facility
The deposit facility refers to overnight deposits placed by banks that access the Eurosystem's liquidity absorbing standing facility at the pre-specified rate.
2.3 Fixed-term deposits
Fixed-term deposits are fine-tuning liquidity absorbing operations that take the form of deposits.
2.4 Fine-tuning reverse operations
Fine-tuning reverse operations are used to offset high liquidity imbalances.
2.5 Deposits related to margin calls
This item refers to deposits made by counterparties in those instances where the market value of the collateral pledged falls short of an established trigger point.
3. Other liabilities to euro area credit institutions denominated in euro
As at 31 December 2022, this item amounted to EUR 354.2 million (2021: EUR 305.7 million) and included repurchase agreements. In 2021, the item included repurchase agreements, EUR 300.9 million, and collateral related to currency swap agreements, EUR 4.8 million.
4. Liabilities to other euro area residents denominated in euro
This item consists of euro-denominated liabilities to the public sector (EUR 1,725 million) and to financial institutions not subject to minimum reserve requirements (EUR 8.0 million).
5. Liabilities to non-euro area residents denominated in euro
This item consists of balances of international organisations and non-euro area banks with the Bank of Finland (EUR 5,891.3 million).
6. Liabilities to euro area residents denominated in foreign currency
As at 31 December 2022, the Bank of Finland had no liabilities to euro area residents denominated in foreign currency.
7. Liabilities to non-euro area residents denominated in foreign currency
As at 31 December 2022, the Bank of Finland had no liabilities to non-euro area residents denominated in foreign currency.
8. Counterpart of special drawing rights allocated by the IMF
This item is the counter-item of special drawing rights (SDRs, cf. item on the assets side). Originally, holdings of special drawing rights on the assets side of the balance sheet and their counter-item on the liabilities side matched up. As a result of SDR transactions, the Bank of Finland’s claims related to special drawing rights at the year-end were greater than the counter-item on the liabilities side. On the liabilities side, the counter-item amounts to SDR 3,500.0 million. The item is presented in the balance sheet in euro, valued at the rate prevailing on 31 December 2022 (EUR 4,380.9 million).
9. Intra-Eurosystem liabilities (net)
Intra-Eurosystem liabilities and claims are elaborated on in more detail in the notes on the balance sheet under asset item ‘Intra-Eurosystem claims’.
10. Other liabilities
This item consists of accruals, accounts payable and sundry liabilities. Accruals include e.g. transferable items recorded in connection with the financial accounts and accrued interest payable on long-term refinancing operations. Sub-item ‘Sundry’ includes e.g. liabilities related to value added and withholding tax payments.
|Other liabilities (EUR m)||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021||Change|
11. Revaluation accounts
The item consists of unrealised valuation gains arising from the market valuation of foreign currency-denominated items and securities. The item also includes revaluations of land and buildings and other valuation differences arising from changes in accounting practice in 1999.
|Revaluation accounts (EUR m)||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021||Change|
Under section 20 of the Act on the Bank of Finland, provisions can be made in the annual accounts, if they are necessary for safeguarding the real value of the Bank’s funds or for smoothing out variations in profit and loss arising from changes in exchange rates or market values of securities. At the end of 2022, these provisions totalled EUR 5,094.7 million. Provisions consist of a general provision, provision against real value loss, pension provision, and foreign exchange rate and price difference provision.
The provision for pensions has been established to cover the Bank of Finland’s pension liabilities. These liabilities total EUR 569.5 million, and 100.6% of this amount, i.e. EUR 573.2 million, is covered by the pension provision. The change in the size of the pension provision during the year consists of a reduction of EUR -0.4 million in the revaluation account and a loss of EUR -2.6 million for the pension fund which was covered by reducing the pension provision. At the end of 2022, real estate in the value of EUR 9.9 million was earmarked for covering the pension provision (see note on asset item ‘Other assets’). No specific assets have been earmarked for covering the remaining portion (EUR 562.9 million) of the pension provision. Instead, these assets are managed as part of the Bank’s financial assets.
|Provisions (EUR m)||Total provisions 31 Dec 2020||Change in provisions 2021||Total provisions 31 Dec 2021||Change in provisions 2022||Total provisions 31 Dec 2022|
|Foreign exchange rate and price difference provision||1,164||21||1,185||-165||1,021|
|Provision against real value loss||1,545||58||1,603||–||1,603|
|Provision against losses in monetary policy operations||–||–||–||–||–|
13. Capital and reserves
This item consists of the Bank of Finland’s primary capital and reserve fund. Under section 21 of the Act on the Bank of Finland, the loss shall be covered from the reserve fund, if the annual accounts of the Bank show a financial loss. If the reserve fund is insufficient to cover part of the loss, the uncovered part may be left temporarily uncovered. Any profits in subsequent years shall be used first to cover such uncovered losses.
|Capital and reserves (EUR m)||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021||Change|
14. Profit for the year
Profit for the financial year 2022 was EUR 0.00.
|Profit for the year (EUR m)||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021||Change|
|To be transferred for the needs of the State||–||26.3||-26.3|
|Bank of Finland's share of profit (to be transferred to the reserve fund)||–||26.2||-26.2|
Pursuant to Council Decision 2022/1211/EU of 12 July 2022, taken in accordance with Article 140(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Croatia adopted the single currency on 1 January 2023. In accordance with Article 48.1 of the Statute of the ESCB and the legal acts adopted by the Governing Council on 30 December 2022,Decision ECB/2022/51 of 30 December 2022 on the paying-up of capital, transfer of foreign reserve assets and contributions by Hrvatska narodna banka to the European Central Bank’s reserves and provisions, OJ L 17, 19 January 2023 p. 94; Agreement of 30 December 2022 between Hrvatska narodna banka and the European Central Bank regarding the claim credited to Hrvatska narodna banka by the European Central Bank under 30.3 of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank, OJ C 18, 19 January 2023 p. 1. Hrvatska Narodna Banka paid up the remainder of its capital subscription to the ECB. In accordance with Article 48.1, in conjunction with Article 30.1, of the Statute of the ESCB, Hrvatska Narodna Banka transferred foreign reserve assets to the ECB in an amount corresponding to its subscribed capital share. As a result of the change in the capital key following Hrvatska Narodna Banka’s entry in to the Eurosystem, the Bank of Finland’s share in the ECB’s paid up capital (capital key) declined from 1.8369% to 1.8221%. The Bank of Finland’s share in the ECB’s subscribed capital is 1.4939%.
Until 28 February 2023, the date on which the annual accounts were approved by the Board of the Bank of Finland, an amount of EUR 250 million of the Bank of Finland’s TLTRO III operations that were outstanding as at 31 December 2022, had been repaid early to the Bank of Finland. In the same period a total amount of EUR 99.3 billion was repaid early to the Eurosystem on the outstanding TLTRO III operations. (See also note on asset item 5.2 ‘Longer term refinancing operations’).
|Off-balance sheet commitments (EUR m)||31 Dec 2022||31 Dec 2021|
|Nominal value of purchase agreements||46.4||–|
|Nominal value of sales agreements||-30.0||-17.7|
|Market value of FX swap agreements||-19.4||8.1|
|Investment commitments related to real estate funds||69.8||35.0|
In accordance with the Governing Council’s decisions, the Bank of Finland has made available for lending its holdings of securities purchased under the third covered bond purchase programmes, as well as its holdings of securities purchased under the CSPP, the PSPP and the PEPP. The Bank of Finland has also made available for lending securities in its own investment portfolio. Securities lending operations conducted against collateral other than cash are recorded in off-balance-sheet accounts at year-end.Cash collateral received in securities lending operations is recorded in on-balance-sheet accounts (see note on liability item 3. ‘Other liabilities to euro area credit institutions denominated in euro’ and on liability item 5. ‘Liabilities to non-euro area residents denominated in euro’). Such lending operations with a value of EUR 112.2 million (2021: EUR 109.5 million) were outstanding as at 31 December 2022.